How well do the educational systems of Spain, Germany, and the United States address the needs of a multi-cultural and diverse classroom?
Our group’s interest lies in uncovering the reasons why certain groups of students are treated differently both within and across school systems. We are also interested in finding out how discrimination across different modes of education affects pupils’ development and progression into later stages of life. In an increasingly globalized and diverse world, countries have to deal with a wider variety of students. Different schools, teachers, and societies have reacted in different ways, which have differential effects on each type of student. Each one of us will investigate four different areas of interest relating to education: different teaching styles, differential treatment in special education programs, the effectiveness of immigration support programs, and the impact of discrimination based on gender and sexuality. Then, we will all come together and compare and contrast varying degrees of disparities in education among Germany, Spain, and the United States.
Octavio will study how teachers are trained in each country. He will specifically point our advantages and disadvantages to each type of teacher training and relate them back to their effect on students. He will see which teaching styles are the most effective at creating equal opportunity for all students.
Ileanna will study how education systems in different countries handle children who have autism. Having worked with students with autism before, Ileanna hopes to discover the strengths and weaknesses of each country’s programs for autism. She wants to know which countries are most effective at leveling the playing field and how they came to do so.
Roxana will study how governments and civil society help immigrant students integrate into society at large. She will evaluate the depth and breadth of programs aimed to help immigrants adjust to life in a new country. She will see what is effective and what is not in order to determine what the ideal way to bring education closer to its intended meritocracy.
Mitchell will study LGBTQ discrimination within school systems across Germany, Spain, and the United States. He will see what policies are most effective in helping LGBTQ youth achieve full integration into larger society. He will look at the roots in homophobia, how it affects LGBTQ youth, and how education systems can best address the situation to ensure that LGBTQ youth have the opportunity to take full advantage of the education system.
Beginning with the Ancient Greeks, education has served as a way to teach students the values of society. It has primarily functioned as a meritocracy, measuring student’s intellectual ability and then rewarding those that did well. Ideally, each student would have an equal opportunity to succeed. Today, many education systems function in the same way, supporting the intellectually gifted. However, success is not equally attainable for all students. The barriers and opportunities available depend on the policies and culture of each country.
In the United States, the education system varies by state. The path of education advances from primary to secondary school and then to college or vocational school. Curriculum is organized by the state and the federal government as well as the state governments’ organized standardized tests.
Spain has a similar system where students advance through the same stages (primary, secondary, etc.). However, after the age of 16, only successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary for them to continue on to university. This has resulted in Spain having double the mean of the EU’s dropout rate (Simon). Furthermore, students are not assessed through standardized tests (Simon).
The educational system varies throughout Germany because each state implements its own educational policies; the federal government plays only a minor role. Optional Kindergarten education is provided for all children between two and six years of age, after which school attendance is compulsory. The German school system is free and compulsory until 9th grade. After the Grundschule (primary school from the ages 6- 10), teachers recommend each student for one of three different types of secondary education. Parents have the final decision about which school their child will attend.
Hauptschule is designed for students going into trades such as construction. This is completed after 9th or 10th grade (ages 14 to 16). During apprenticeships, students then attend Berufsschule, a dual-education vocational high school. The Hauptschule has been subject to significant criticism, as it tends to segregate the children of immigrants with schoolmates whose German is also poor, leading to a cycle of poverty.
Realschule is designed for students who want to apprentice for white-collar jobs not requiring university studies, such as banking; complete after 10th grade (age 15 to 16). Those who change their minds and decide to attend university can proceed after testing to Gymnasium. Some areas of Germany combine Realschule and Hauptschule under one organizational and educational umbrella.
Gymnasium is an academic preparatory school for pupils planning to attend universities or polytechnics. Some offer a classical education (Latin, Greek), while others concentrate on economics. The curriculum leading to the Abitur degree was recently reduced from 13th grade to 12th grade (ages 17 to 18 - "G8," eight years of Gymnasium). In order to attend Gymnasium, students must obtain a letter of recommendation from their previous teachers.
The Gesamtschule, a mixed ability school, puts all pupils in a single building, combining the three main types; these are still quite rare.
Students with special needs are assigned to Förderschule. These are partially integrated with non-handicapped students and they vary depending on the type of disability (Bonn 2012). In the system, there are many more types of specialized schools for vocational, teacher and academic training.
After intense written and oral examinations, students can attend university. While there, they work towards a Bachelor’s Degree and some continue to a Master’s or a PhD. After this, students enter the job market.
How do organizations, in conjunction with the government and society, support immigrant education?
In the wake of globalization, people and cultures have dispersed all over the world. After the formation of EU and the establishment of a strong European economy, migrants flowed into Western Europe from Africa, Asia, and, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe. Consequently, this changed the demographics for many countries and created new challenges. One of the main challenges that these countries face is fostering educational achievement. With an increasingly diverse classroom, governments struggle to fit the needs of its students. Obstacles include not only differences in culture and language but also racial and religious stigmas that have developed over time. The complexity of addressing such an issue has been approached by theorists in many different ways.
One such theorist is Paulo Freire. As critical educator of the 20th century, he worked on a successful literacy campaign in Brazil and developed critical pedagogy. This pedagogy, however, was not a method or technique of teaching but rather a political and moral practice that encouraged the educator to think about the purpose of education in a different way. Freire rejected the use of education as a way to meet market demands through instrumentalized knowledge. Instead, he saw it as a way to strengthen imagination and work towards a more politically and socially just world. Freire believed that education should not be teaching for a test but rather the pursuit of critical thinking and the teaching of freedom and social responsibility. When he was teaching students in Brazil to read, he was not educating “as not a means to prepare students for the world of subordinated labor or "careers," but [as] a preparation for a self-managed life” (Giroux 2013). Freire’s success in Brazil suggests that critical pedagogy may help educators address the needs of a multicultural classroom.
John Ogbu analyzes minority education by categorizing immigrants into three groups. Autonomous minorities, such as Jews and Mormons, are only numerical minorities and are not subject to stratification. Immigrant minorities have migrated in the belief that their lives would improve economically and socially in their destination countries. Lastly, involuntary/castelike minorities do not choose to become part of a society but are forced to through colonization, slavery or other methods (Ogbu 1990). I will be focusing on the immigrant minorities as they are the largest and most complex group of the three. In the United States, their relationship with the educational system is unique. Theoretically speaking, the performance of immigrant minorities is dependent on the expectations they have when they move to the United States. Many see their socioeconomic and political problems as temporary barriers that can be overcome by hard work and education. Thus, many believe that immigrants in the United States do better than expected in school.
Recent studies, however, show that socioeconomic status and family education have much larger effects on educational performance. In the past fifty years, income inequality has increased worldwide, and with it, so has the achievement gap (Reardon 2011). The gap is 30 to 40 percent larger for children born in 2001 than it is for those born 25 years earlier (Reardon 2011). Given that most immigrants move to begin a better life, some from less educated backgrounds, their low socioeconomic status upon entering the country makes them more likely to fall behind. These factors also put migrant students at risk of dropping out or failing (“Integrating Immigrant Children” 2004).
Another critical factor that affects immigrant education is the country’s history. After the end of the Second World War, Germany struggled with nationalism and the idea of a national identity. As its economy grew, immigrants, particularly from Turkey, flowed into the country. These migrants were not concerned with integration as they saw their stay in Germany as temporary (Elger 2013). However, many ended up staying, forcing the German identity to move towards a more European one (Heide). With an educational system that was passed down from the Prussians, Germany has been trying to provide opportunities to immigrants through a variety of organizations (Isensee). These are usually private and afterschool (Young Teacher). One of the main areas in Berlin that requires such attention is Neukölln. There, over 80% of youth under 18 years old are immigrants (Simon). In the past period, about 10 million euros of combined EU and federal and local German government funds have been spent on supporting projects geared towards integration (Simon).
The situation in Spain, however, is slightly different, primarily due to the economic crisis in 2008. During the first decade of the 21st century, Spain experienced one of the largest immigration influxes on record (Arango 2013). The dispersion of immigrants was uneven with the South receiving primarily African immigrants from Morocco and the North receiving fewer and richer immigrants from Latin America (Arango 2013). Most natives saw them through the lens of the labor market: people that provide services and goods. However, the crisis, leaving millions of Spaniards unemployed, has been causing anti-immigrant sentiment to increase (Arango 2013). This can be seen in a recent law that prevents immigrants without papers to access healthcare (Sierra Pambley Teacher). Despite these setbacks, the EU is making a concerted effort to ensure basic education to every child by the year 2030 (European Union).
Throughout my project, I used interviews, group lectures, government statistics, and peer-reviewed papers to research my topic. Often times, my external findings would spark questions for interviews while group lectures would present new information for me to look into. I would try to interview a variety of people (artists, educators, students, etc.) in order to get a comprehensive understanding of the topic. After talking with a few people, I would compare their perspectives and opinions with the governments’. I was pleasantly surprised to see that the majority of the time, the two coincided; however, this may be due to the fact that most of my interviewees were intellectuals. However, their extensive knowledge contributed results with great depth and quality.
Though these methods provided a lot to work with, there were certain drawbacks. Since we visited during the summer, school was not in session. This made it more difficult to find teachers and especially students to talk to. Ideally, I would have wanted to interview at least one migrant student, but I was unable to do so. Another obvious drawback is my limited sample size which is subject to bias since it was not from a variety of socioeconomic, religious and ethnic backgrounds. If I had more time to continue this project, I would try to alleviate these drawbacks as much as possible.
Though past research has argued that immigrant students in the U.S. fare better than or similarly to the natives, my findings show a different perspective. One of the most important factors that affect how much a U.S. migrant student can get out of the education system is the age at which they migrate (Ruiz-de-Velasco and Fix 2000). Many students that arrive as teens have large gaps in literacy skills as well as other proficiencies due to interrupted schooling in their home countries (Ruiz-de-Velasco and Fix 2000). This is often combined with the larger obstacle these students face: the language. Not only are most teachers unequipped to work with ELL (English Language Learner) students, but the teaching method of language first and content second is also ineffective (Ruiz-de-Velasco and Fix 2000). An education where the two were taught simultaneously would benefit immigrant students most. Currently, the system segregates the students into separate classes based on their language skills, but they have also been separating themselves where some schools have disproportionately more migrants than others. This has led to uneven distribution of immigrant students, limiting resources for this high need group.
In Germany and Spain, analyses of the results of the PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) test reveal similar problems. As Table 1 shows, both Germany and Spain have high percentages of immigrant students, 25% and 15% respectively. Unlike Spain, which has a more even distribution, Germany’s immigrant population is primarily made up of second-generation students that speak the test language (German) at home (Table 1). Furthermore, the PISA results of the two countries differ. In both countries, immigrant students do not do as well on the standardized test as the native ones do (Table 2). One would expect that second-generation students that speak the test-language at home would perform comparably to native-born students, but this is only the case in Spain. Though there is a slight improvement between generations for both countries, Germany’s students still lag behind by a significant amount. This suggests that migrant parents may access and interact with schools in a different manner than native-born parents do (Cobb-Clark et. al 2013).
In an interview with Cordula Simon, from the Head of European Affairs Office Program on Immigration in Neukölln, I got a better insight into the immigrant communities in Berlin. Even though students are taught to be mediators, tensions are still strong between different ethnic groups. Furthermore, many parents are cut off from interacting with the school due to language and cultural barriers. Migrant parents not only struggle with reading school pamphlets, but they also fear sending their children to school due to past kidnappings. The education system also has trouble reaching the students. Some communities are not interested in certain jobs or subjects. For example, the Roma were metalworkers traditionally, making careers like economist or market specialist uninteresting and culturally obsolete.
However, the government has been hard at work supporting and funding NGO projects in the region. These projects “make young people fit for life” (Simon). They vary from offering extra Turkish language classes to placing teachers that speak the students’ languages in the schools. As Ms. Simon put it, “A good project is based on the needs of the pupils or the school or the neighbourhood.” These characteristics, along with a good reputation and a well-organized plan, get these projects approved. Parents and other citizens of the Neukölln community can voice their opinions through a committee that is directly elected by the people (Simon). These committees work closely with social workers and schools to make their opinions heard.
A closer look at the whole of Germany shows a different perspective. Unlike immigrant populations from Italy, Spain and other southern European countries, the Turkish communities are very poorly integrated. They are still “worse educated, worse paid and have a higher rate of unemployment” than other Germans (Elger 2013). Some argue that the Turkish community needs to make more of an effort to integrate. However, xenophobia and religion push them out of the larger German society. Though not all Islamic Turkish immigrants listen to fundamentalist imams, those that do limit female students’ participation in the school curriculum. Recently, the situation has been improving slowly as the number of Turkish girls in Gymnasium has been increasing, surpassing the percentage of Turkish boys (Elger 2013).
According to a newly graduated teacher, the structure of the education system still struggles to meet the needs of immigrant students. After navigating through the bureaucracy of paying for school without much counseling help, he began to realize that his many years of schooling did not completely prepare him for a real classroom. Many immigrant students are deficit in language and reading skills as well as general self-confidence. The pedagogy taught in teacher-training, if any at all, does not give new teachers enough information on how to deal with such students. And regardless of student performance, teachers have such high job security that they are neither motivated nor encouraged to improve their pedagogy.
However, the education gap between immigrant and native students arises not only from how they are taught but what they are taught. One example of this is the Holocaust. Some non-German students feel as if the history of the Holocaust is irrelevant to them (Georgi 2013). They feel as if their own personal histories, such as histories of migration, are unfairly overlooked by the system (Georgi 2013). This causes both educational and social gaps as migrant students lose interest in school and segregate themselves from their native German peers. In certain institutions that target immigrant students, such as one in Neukölln called Neukölln-Aktiv, social workers and teachers have trouble reaching out to their pupils. The students struggle with the strict structure and often feel as if what they are learning is not useful (Neukölln-Aktiv 2012).
In Spain, the problems immigrants face are slightly different. The biggest barrier of them all is language. Often times, students not only have to become fluent in Spanish but also the local dialect (Valencian, Catalan, Gallego, etc.) in order to be successful. A young German teacher from the Leon Language Center has noticed the recent explosion in language learning. The most popular languages include English, German and Spanish. This is a direct product of the recent crisis, as the majority of unemployed graduates leave the country in search of work. Learning so many new languages does not come easy for all students, though. Throughout her time teaching, she has noticed that struggling students, usually migrant ones, are often excluded by their peers (Madrid Teacher).
Exclusion and segregation are issues in many Spanish institutions and programs aimed at helping migrant students integrate. In Madrid, Villababel High School utilizes language as a criterion for organizing students in different classrooms. Students are separated into two language programs: 1) the Spanish Immersion Program for Newcomers, Aula de Enlaces (AE), which is designed for students that do not know Spanish; or 2) the Spanish-English Bilingual Program, Programa Bilingüe (PB), which teaches English to Spanish-speaking students. Although these programs are meant to promote social inclusion, they in fact do just the opposite (Mijares and Pastor 2011). The PB separates the students into “good” and “bad” by using mastery of both Spanish and English as capital in the classroom. In the AE, immigrant students are segregated from their peers by not providing them with the appropriate content to help them transition into mainstream classrooms, forcing them to remain in the program longer than needed. Since the program defines “bilingualism” only with respect to English, they are also discouraged from speaking any languages other than Spanish in the classroom (Mijares and Pastor 2011).
In Spain, these students must also face a unique obstacle: the economic crisis. The majority of students attend public institutions where large budget cuts have removed assistant teachers and increased classroom sizes (Madrid Teacher). Furthermore, fees for university have been increasing as grants for low-income students have decreased, forcing students to attend school and work simultaneously. With cuts on these important resources, migrant students are slowly being left behind.
Despite Spain’s previous immigrant-friendly policies, the government continues to pass education reforms that push these students even farther back. In an attempt to improve PISA test scores, Education Minister José Ignacio Wert proposed new education reforms to streamline the curriculum to core classes with the possibility of eliminating art and music altogether (“Spanish Education Reforms” 2012). There would also be more frequent examination, designed to distinguish only worthy candidates for continued education (“Spanish Education Reforms” 2012). However, other countries show that a more elitist system does not guarantee better results. In the end, these reforms will only make a complete education more unattainable for migrant students.
There are, however, private institutions that are working to help them integrate. One example is Sierra Pambley, a privately run organization in Leon, that offers free classes on the Spanish language, writing, computer skills and waitressing skills (Sierra Pambley Teacher). These students get one on one help from teachers on integrating into society and finding work, which can prove difficult in the biased labor market. As one of the teachers put it, “If you are from Africa you only have access to some kind of jobs like construction or waiter” (Sierra Pambley Teacher). Despite this, the staff works hard to prepare their students and overcome their biggest barrier: the language. “I think the biggest obstacle is language because I've seen students with great skills in maths or sciences who have problems with some subjects only because they don't have good level of Spanish,” said a teacher (Sierra Pambley Teacher). The majority of students are from Morocco and Africa though some native Spaniards take advantage of these classes as well. In this mixed environment, the teachers also work to break down cultural and religious barriers and give immigrants a fair chance at a good education.
In Germany, the country as a whole appears to be moving forward on improving immigrant education. Turkish is now being taught at certain schools and can officially count as one of the two languages a high school student can graduate with (Simon). This allows migrant students, especially those that arrive later, to be integrated into the school system much more quickly. It also shows that Germany is making deliberate strides towards a more globalized identity. Young educators are becoming more and more aware of the injustices in the education system and want to see a change. One teacher even suggested that this topic might be up for debate in the coming election.
Despite these movements forward, Germany still has a long way to go before claiming to have true integration. Discrimination against foreigners is still strong and migrants struggle in all parts of society. Though there are many organizations and passionate government employees that are working hard to help immigrants, the larger majority of Germans still see their country as “us” and “them.” The Turkish communities do the same. In order for Germany to move forward, more needs to be done to educate citizens on building a more socially just society. Adopting some of Freire’s techniques of critical pedagogy in schools could have vast implications for the futures of immigrant students.
In Spain, the economic crisis has led to a dearth in resources, causing the country to shift backwards on their immigrant policies. As the government struggles to provide for its citizens, anti-immigrant sentiments are stirred up, and policies discriminating between native and immigrants become more common. Most recently, a new policy passed that does not allow migrants without papers to access healthcare (Sierra Pambley Teacher). This has an indirect effect on their schooling as it distracts from their education and limits their upward mobility.
Most of all, the educational system needs serious revamping. At the moment, it is set up in a way that goes against everything that critical pedagogy upholds. A British parent in Madrid said, “It was desks right from the start (age 2)… I just don’t understand the idea of getting so academic at such a young age” (“Spanish Education Reforms” Mears 2012). This kind of education that promotes regurgitation of facts does not give students enough time and practice developing social and critical thinking skills. Thus, their perceptions of the world are more likely to be molded by the media or their peers. Like in Germany, educational reforms that change the way students and other citizens view the world around them are necessary in order to improve the situations of immigrants in Spain.
As Trevor Philips, the Head of the UK’s Commission for Racial Equality, stated, “There can be no true equality without integration and … no true integration without equality” (qtd. in “Spain Still Wrestles” Mears 2013). My research has shown me that despite the many cultural and linguistic differences that define Germany, Spain and the United States, all three countries still have much to improve with regard to immigrant education. The question that remains is how will they do so? Are there certain policies that work only in some countries or is there only one way to improve the situation, such as implementing critical pedagogy? How will the situation change as each country becomes more and more globalized? These questions are all interesting and important questions to explore in the future.
We, as a group, have determined that education is absolutely, unequivocally not a meritocracy. Well, at least, not in its current state. Octavio discovered that teachers in Germany and Spain are educated to teach their material, not to create diverse classrooms. While the United States fares better in this department, it is still relatively week. This type of environment does not allow multi-ethnic kids, or even students with different cultural views, to take full advantage of the education system. Multi-ethnic students won’t feel safe unless teachers take measures to promote classroom cooperation. Unfortunately, that goal is far from reality.
Ileanna researched whether or not schools had systems in place to support kids with autism. It turns out that neither Germany nor Spain has adequate resources for these students. Kids with autism are grouped with other kids who have mental disabilities. Oftentimes, there aren’t even schools or special classrooms for these students. They are integrated into regular classrooms and asked to play while the teacher addresses his/her class. Although the United States has admirable policies toward children with autism, budget cuts have made support increasingly hard to find. In all three countries, children with autism have a distinct disadvantage in the school system. They are not supported as they should be and as such, they are not able to receive a quality education.
Roxana focused on support systems for immigrant students. She found that there were inadequate resources for immigrant students. The governments do not allocate very much money to help immigrants assimilate and as a result, they are put at a disadvantage. They do not know the language or culture and have had to start their lives without a strong foundation. The sparse services provided to them only begin to cover what they need to fully integrate into society.
Mitchell focused on LGBTQ discrimination in education. He found that LGBTQ students are indeed discriminated against in schools and that the education systems were inadequate when dealing with harassment. Homophobia causes a disproportionate number of LGBTQ youth to drop out of school, think about suicide, perform worse in school, and feel unsafe. In addition, they don’t have proper social support systems to help them through tumultuous times. This, in turn, does not allow LGBTQ students to realize their full potential. They cannot take advantage of the education system if they are constantly living in fear of their peers.
Before beginning this project, I had been volunteering with the Dream Project at the University of Washington for about two years. Every week, I would work with low-income high school students on college applications, resumes and even homework. Throughout the years, I learned more and more about the struggles that these students faced when pursuing their education. I became curious about whether students in other countries faced these same problems and decided to answer my questions by continuing this informal research in Germany and in Spain. As an immigrant, this question was very important to me. Unlike other children, my parents pushed me hard to excel in school. However, I soon came to realize that not everyone’s parents did the same, and I wanted to know, would I, and others like me, have been able to succeed without my family’s support? This question is truly applicable to everyone, but those that are most likely to answer negatively are the minorities, the immigrants.
While researching my project, I found my biases harder to overcome than I had previously thought. Having grown up in both Europe and the United States, I had always seen Europe through rose-colored glasses. In my eyes, they were much more globally aware than the United States and I expected to find the conditions for immigrants to be better. I was very surprised to find that across the Atlantic Ocean, the same problems were prevalent. This experience made me hyper-aware of how much more I have to learn about the world around me.
After talking with a variety of people in both Germany and Spain, I have also become more aware of how others see me. Though I don’t primarily identify as an American, it is what strangers quickly label me as. I am sure that if I didn’t say anything, including my name, most people would not recognize me as foreign in the United States. Therefore, I feel as if I have been fortunate enough not to have experienced the discrimination that many of the immigrants I have been studying have. Throughout this project, I have tried to envision the situations that others have described to me; the poverty, segregation, bullying. Others have not done the same, though, and I see this lack of compassion in every day citizens. This project has been an amazing, eye-opening experience that has improved my social awareness and allowed me to grow as an individual and student in ways that I couldn’t have imagined.
Table 1. The distribution of the population of each country by language and origin (Cobb-Clark et. al 2013).
Table 2. The results of the PISA test organized by the nativity, country and language of the students.
Arango, Joaquín. 2013. Exceptional in Europe? Spain’s Experience with Immigration and Integration. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
"Aulas De Enlace Del Área Territorial De Madrid-Capital." Aulas De Enlace Del Área Territorial De Madrid-Capital De La Consejería De Educación De La Comunidad De Madrid. Consejeria De Educacion, Juventud Y Deporte, n.d. Web. 25 July 2013. <http://www.madrid.org/dat_capital/bienvenida/ae.htm>.
Bonn. "Basic Structure of the Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany." The Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany. Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs, Jan. 2012. Web. 24 July 2013.
Cobb-Clark, D. A., M. Sinning, and S. Stillman. “Migrant Youths' Educational Achievement: The Role of Institutions.”ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 643.1 (2012): 18-45. 4 July 2013. <doi:10.1177/0002716212440786>.
Elger, Katrin, Ansbert Kneip, and Merlind Theile. "Immigration: Survey Shows Alarming Lack of Integration in Germany." SPIEGEL ONLINE. Spiegel, 26 Jan. 2009. Web. 25 July 2013.
European Union. European Commission. EU Commits to Ensuring Basic Education for Every Child by 2030. Europa. N.p., 23 May 2013. Web. 5 July 2013.
Georgi, Viola B., Dr. "Multiculturalism and the Politics of Memory Culture in Germany’s Education System." Humboldt University, Berlin. 28 June 2013. Lecture.
Giroux, Henry A. "Rethinking Education as the Practice of Freedom: Paulo Freire and the Promise of Critical Pedagogy." TruthOut. TruthOut, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 24 July 2013.
Heide, Marcus, Dr. "Introduction to German History." Humboldt University, Berlin. 25 June 2013. Lecture.
Integrating immigrant children into schools in Europe. Brussels: Eurydice, European Unit, 2004. Print.
Isensee, Reinhard. "German Education: A Transatlantic Perspective." Humboldt University, Berlin. 28 June 2013. Lecture.
Laura Mijares & Ana M. Relao Pastor (2011) Language programs at Villababel High: rethinking ideologies of social inclusion, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14:4, 427-442, DOI: 10.1080/13670050.2011.573066
Madrid Teacher. Fundacion Internacional Baltasar Garzon, Madrid. 9 July 2013. Lecture.
Mears, Olwen. "Spain Still Wrestles with Immigration." Iberosphere. N.p., 29 May 2013. Web. 25 July 2013.
Mears, Olwen. "Spanish Education Reforms…in the Wrong Direction." Iberosphere. N.p., 12 Nov. 2012. Web. 02 Aug. 2013.
Neukoelln-Aktiv. Dir. Sabine Herpich and Gregor Stadlober. HFF "Konrad Wolf" Potsdam-Babelsberg, 2012. DVD.
Ogbu, John U. "Minority Education in Comparative Perspective." The Journal of Negro Education 59.1 (1990): 45-57. Web.
Reardon, Sean F. "The Widening Academic AchievementGap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations." Whither Opportunity?Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children’s Life Chances. N.p.: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011. N. pag. July 2011. Web. 15 July 2013.
Ruiz-de-Velasco, Jorge, and Michael Fix. "Overlooked and Underserved: Immigrant Students in U.S. Secondary Schools." Urban Institute, 1 Dec. 2000. Web. 26 July 2013.
Sierra Pambley Teacher. E-mail interview. 17 July 2013.
Simon, Cordula. Personal interview. 4 July 2013.
Simon, Maria L.S. "The Story on Current Education Reforms in Spain: The past Will Come Back." Web log post. Education in Crisis. N.p., 21 Feb. 2013. Web.
Young Teacher. Personal interview. 1 July 2013.